The change of the mentality, a development factor.


A friend of mine, Emmanuel Rusaka left Congo a year ago for Kenya for studies. He went to the Africa Nazarene University in Nairobi. As he was ambitious, on 14 of September he decided to enter a competition whose the winner would be the representative of the students community.
The candidates were 25 and the voters 500. The result is surprising because it attributes the victory to a Congolese while the majority of voters are Kenyans and the competition takes place in Kenya. For me Congolese, such a result carries a message: Kenyans are changing their mentality bit by bit.
And then I wondered: we Congolese, are we ready to vote for a foreigner living here in D.R.Congo when we are aware that he is up to the task he is applying for?
I think no. No because we have been educated to perceive the difference as an anti-value.
The educators had decided to tell us about the disadvantages of the difference and to not tell us about the advantages of the difference.
Indeed, we all know that over the three last decades the African continent has experienced devastating conflicts whose causes were related to ethnic or religious identity.
In 1994 a violent conflict opposing the Hutu to Tutsi arose in Rwanda. The conflict even led to genocide. In 2007 it was D.R. Congo’s turn. A rebel movement called National Congress for the Defense of the People is created to fight for the respect of the rights of the Banyamulenge ethnic group. This movement had launched the armed attacks during which so many people were killed, women raped and kids recruited. In 2013 the same situation occurred in South Soudan where a violent conflict had opposed the dinka ethnic group of which Salva Kiir is a son to the nuer ethnic group of which Riek Machar is a son. During the same year, Nigeria had been, for the first time, the victim of the barbarous acts committed by the Islamist sect Boko Haram and Central Africa, the victim of a terrible war between Christians and Muslims.
Kenyan students have decided to vote for a foreigner while other Africans are killing their fellow countrymen with whom they do not share the same religion or the tribe.
Those Kenyans, aren’t they teaching us? Can’t we learn from them?
Which progress have we already made since we use the exclusion based on the nationality, the religion or the tribe as a way of governing if not depriving ourselves of the new things persons who are different from us can offer?
Aren’t we poor because we believe that those who are different from us have nothing good to offer us?
For a very long time, leaders have learned how to manipulate the words nationality, tribe and religion to divide people in order to govern them for so long and in an abusive way. As a result, people are no longer strong, people have no longer the voice and have no longer the aspiration, people have no longer eyes to see. All what they do is now to venerate the nationality, the tribe, the religion. It becomes something like fanaticism. Their main enemy is no longer the one who violate their rights but the one with whom they do not share the nationality, the religion or the tribe.
In D.R. Congo, we are familiar with speeches like: you should vote for me because I am your son, don’t let a foreigner govern us, or even if your sun is stupid, don’t promote the son of your neighbour.
In 2006,during the vote in D.R. Congo, we heard some people saying: which tribe does he belong to? Where is this name from? Don’t make a mistake of voting for it, or he is one of us, don’t jump his name.
Questions like: is he the right person to be there? does he know why he should be there? does he know our main needs? Is he competent to represent us or to govern us were almost absent.
Unfortunately even the new generation of leaders think that the exclusion of differences is the powerful gun to use in order to access the power and exercise it for so long. They shouldn’t trust the exclusion. They should, by contrast, trust their ability to convince, their knowledge and experience.

Africa is now connected to the social networks.

téléphonie-mobileAccording to a post by the French Magazine Jeune Afrque and that the World Bank has shared with its followers on its face book page, every month, over 100 millions of Africans log on to face book, whose 80% on the mobile.

What about twitter, Google+, You Tube, Vimeo, Skype…? In the Jeune Afrique article, nothing has been developed about these other social networks, but what we know is that, this last period, numerous Africans are attracted by them.

Now Africa is connected to the social networks: an opportunity or a threat?

An opportunity. An opportunity because the social networks will open up Africa to the rest of the world. That openness will give to Africa not only an opportunity to share with the rest of the world its daily realities but  also to learn experiences and examples related to democracy, leadership and governance from the rest of the world.

An opportunity because the social networks can decrease considerably the statistics of unemployment in Africa. Indeed, the social networks will provide to Africa with an opportunity to attract investors by letting them know how the business climate has improved, by advertising for the local businesses and by informing people about the job opportunities which are so many online.

An opportunity because the social networks will enable the emergence of a non-infiltrated civilian society whose the main purpose is to inform the masses and to prevent those in power from abusing their power. As Africa is a youth continent, the social networks provide to those youth with an opportunity to make their voices heard, to let their vision known and to struggle for what they deserve.

An opportunity because the social networks will enable the birth and the growth of a generation of leaders in various fields and with various proficiencies because the social networks are not only a bank of knowledge, experiences and models of leaders but also a wide space where these new leaders can express themselves and partner with others locally and internationally.

However, challenges are still so many and large: in remote areas where the electricity is absent, people have to walk the whole day to find a place to re-charge the batteries of their mobile phones, some areas are not covered by the telephone network, so many youth have no money to go to the internet café, and so many youth are not able to do a rational selection of information. Therefore, the social networks become a place where they go to lose their time.

The included photo has been found on

There is no water in Bukavu.


The raining season has begun, little by little, to give up the place to the dry season, season at which the access to the water becomes the greatest fight of poor families.

There is no water in Bukavu. For families to access it, people have to wake up in the middle of the night  or before five o’clock AM for those who are lazy, in order to access water.

The lack of water in Bukavu is also a war because it makes victims: some kids are crushed by vehicles  while trying to cross the road with gallons of water, others are drowning in Kivu lake and Ruzizi river while trying to fill their gallons with water, and others are even sacrificing school in order to access water. Young girls, pregnant women as well as old women, women of all ages are risking their lives in order to access water.

And leaders? Can’t they intervene?

The lack of water is a problem of poor people. Leaders live in the part of the city where water never stops to flow from the taps. And if it happens, they have tanks, they have vehicles that can carry gallons of water.

What can be done to solve this problem?

To solve this problem, the political will is very necessary, because D.R. Congo is one of countries with a very rich hydrography in the world.

The second thing is to privatize the water company.  According to the manager of the water company in Bukavu, the machines they use to treat and send water to people have been installed at the colonization time and with a capacity of delivering water to a narrow number of people. Now, the number of people have increased but  none of these machines has been replaced. If the water company is given to a private entrepreneur, he shall change the old machines and hire the qualified engineers in order to maximize his income, because whenever a house lacks water, he shall be the one losing.

No revolution, no change

D. R. Congo that is one of the most rich countries of the planet  thanks to its soil and subsoil, its fauna and flora, its hydrography and its cultural diversity, hosts one of the poorest people of the planet.

This paradox is probably the consequence of corruption, embezzlement, tribalism and many wars the country has experienced on one hand, and the lack of democracy, of an opposition that is able to challenge the bad actions of those who are in power and of a civilian society that is able to denounce any abuse of power, to inform and to mobilize the masses on the other hand.

Indeed, the above-listed factors are a real obstacle to the development of D.R. Congo; and those who are losing from them are so many than those who are benefiting from them. Those who are losing from them, it is thousandsof Congolese families who have no access to drinking water, to electricity and to healthcare, it is thousands of children without education and youth without employment. It is thousands of Congolese without future and with an uncertain present.

Before such a situation, the following questions are worth being asked: does the civilian society exist in D.R. Congo? And if it does exist, what is its main role? Is it able to start a peaceful revolution?

Indeed, the civilian society is a set of private organizations that are independent from the State and that fight for social justice,  social change, the interests of people… Among those organizations, we can mention: schools and universities, churches, mass media, NGOs, unions, associations…

In D.R. Congo, the civilian society is not independent. And instead of being a political actor, it is a political instrument used by those who are in power to paint the picture of a State that meetsdemocratic standards.

 As for the revolution, D.R. Congo is not ready for revolution because its masses that are the real victors of the army, the police and the courts that every totalitarian regime uses to protect itself are not united.  In D.R. Congo, the masses are dived by tribalism and the speeches of different religious leaders that prefer to use the theology of prosperity in order to make money and please the regime from which they beg.

D.R. Congo is not ready for the revolution because no one wants to sacrifice his life. Indeed, in D.R. Congo everyone wants the change, but no one wants to sacrifice himself for it,  while that change requires sacrifices.

D.R. Congo is not ready for the revolution because the media  and NGOs are not playing properly their role. Indeed, the media, through their programs, and NGOs, their reports, should have the role of putting the masses in contact with their reality so that they may judge it. The fact for the media to not have freedom to transmit the reality as it is, and  the NGOs, to publish their reports in the countries of donors deprives the Congolese masses of an important information they need in order to become responsible.

The other element that makes D.R. Congo to do not be ready for the revolution is fatalism. Indeed, in D.R. Congo, fatalism is one of the consequences of a long period of sufferings. And it has moreover reached a level so much high that now, so many Congolese think that a solution to their problems doesn’t exist, and that there is nothing they can do for their country, because, according to them, the problem has been there for so long, and some powerful people that tried to solve the problem were killed. Therefore, to not continue living into poverty, it is necessary to look for ways to collaborate with those who are in power.

Congolese people have to learn from others, in particular the Arabic countries. It is true that the Arabic countries have not completely changed, but the result of their first step is great: the change in relationships between the rulers and the ruled.

Furthermore, the opposition that could be a hope for the country is unfortunately mistreated by those who are in power. In order to play properly its role which is to challenge the bad actions of those who are in power in order to prevent them from violating the rights and freedoms of people, the opposition has the right to access the media and to organize meetings in order to exchange with people. Unfortunately , most of the times, the opposition is not allowed to enjoy the two rights.

In conclusion, if D.R. Congo that is one of the most rich countries of the planet continues to host one of the poorest people of the planet, it is because the Congolese masses take a long time to say enough is enough to those who are looting the country, violating the rights of people and getting reach from corruption and embezzlement.  The Congolese masses should know that they are the key to access a country where the principle of powers separation, pledge of democracy and development exists.






Only justice can heal our society

The M23 has announced on November 5th its renunciation to the violence it has been conducting for eighteen months.

Created to defend the democracy and the human rights in Democratic Republic of Congo and to compel the Cngolese government to respect the agreements it has signed with the National Congress for the Defense of the People, the M23 has chosen the violence as the most powerful strategy to reach its goals.

For this purpose, it has massacred civilians, raped women and recruited children.

Is it not today the right time to organize the lawsuit against these major violators of human rights?

At the moment, the M23 delegates are in Kampala asking the Congolese government to amnesty them, then to integrate their troops into the national army and to find positions for their political leaders.

Can such thought processes heal our society?

The M23 rebellion has come to its end of course, but it is then necessary to heal those who have been victims of it. Victims have been terribly traumatized that they need a much more effective therapy called justice.

Only justice can wipe the tears of victims and avoid a settlement of accounts that would plunge the whole region of great lakes into the civilian war.

Punishing the M23 would discourage all those that expect to use violence in order to access the power. It would also play an important role in the promotion of life respect and the reinforcement of the security, because for us to be secured, we do not need the over-armament of our country, but justice that works.

While amnestying them would make the violence a culture in our country and humiliate all the Congolese population.

However, amnestying those that have violated the basic rights of the population in order to access the power would be to construct peace on the impunity while every peace that is constructed on the impunity is fragile.

Burundi, D.R.Congo and Rwanda, lands of violence

When the violence becomes a culture of a nation, the means to claim the rights and a way to access the resources, the national unity becomes weak, citizens renounce to aspire to a common happiness and to trust one another. Then each group looks for reasons to attack the other, and the country falls into the chaos.
Indeed, the consequences of the violence that Burundi, D.R.Congo and Rwanda have recently experienced seem to be irreparable: children have been recruited and trained by the armed militias to kill, to rape and to loot.
Other children have been compelled to assist to the rape of their own mothers and sisters by the same armed militias.
The same children have seen their fathers being locked into houses before burning them. The belongings on which they counted to survive have been taken, and their villages have been transformed into battlefield on which husbands have executed theirs wives, suns their mothers, pastors their congregations and political leaders their fellow countrymen.
Given everything that has happened to us, is a peaceful future possible?
When people use violence to solve a problem in their society, they lose, in a short time, what will take them so long to get back: peace.
Because the repair is never proportional to the damage. Because we shall kill people that we won’t be able to rise. Because we won’t be able to rebuild all what that we will have destroyed. Because victims will look for ways to get one’s revenge.
However, to avoid the violence in the coming days, we should know and let others know that life is a non-renewable resource. This being, we have to be careful with it. We should also understand that when the past stinks a lot, its smell destabilizes the present during which the future is prepared.
Also, to institute peace within these three countries, we have to know that the justice will be its price, and democracy, the pledge.
At this level, an important point seems worthy to be tackled: we all know that the three countries we are talking about in this article are among the poorest countries of the world while they are strongly populated, and the majority of their populations are youth.
However, these youth without education and employment, without anything else as opportunity, won’t they be used to restart violence again?
Don’t they have more opportunities in the violence than in peace?
Why should they privilege peace while they are not earning anything from it?
And what will they fear to lose in the violence? The education? The employment or the businesses?
Therefore, if we want them to privilege peace to the detriment of the violence, let give them the education, the employment and other many opportunities. When they will hear about the violence, they won’t support it, because they know they will lose so many things because of it.

Corruption and Diversion, obstacles to the development in D.R.Congo

On 26th march 2012, the NGO International Transparency-France has published a report in which it has classified D.R. Congo among countries that are the most corrupted of the planet.

According to that report, about 55% of recipe of the public treasure disappear because of corruption.

In fact, the development to which, we, Congolese nation is aspiring can only be possible if we commit to change our mentality, because it is by us, with us and for us that D.R. Congo will be developed.

The culture of corruption and diversion that we already have adopted and that characterizes by now our daily practices constitutes a real brake to the development and makes us the genuine enemies of that development.

What is corruption?

The dictionary defines corruption as the fact of giving money (or other advantages) to a worker so that he can act dishonestly.

And the diversion?

As for the diversion, the dictionary defines it as the fact for a worker to take for him money that was not destined to him.

What are the causes of corruption and diversion?

In D.R. Congo, corruption and diversion have multiple causes. However, we are going to quote some of them:

1.      The Dictatorship

One of the first missions of the dictatorship is indeed to snatch the independence to the justice. Once the justice has lost its independence, it becomes then an instrument that the power uses to punish those who violate the fundamental principle of dictatorship which is the absolute silence. As leaders do already have the justice under their control, they can then divert the possessions of the State and take the bribe without shame nor fear.

2.      The Impunity

Impunity and dictatorship are linked up.

As it has been said in the previous paragraphs, when the justice loses its independence, leaders stop being afraid, because they know they are above the law and can no longer, to this effect, be subjects to the judiciary pursuits. Therefore, leaders indulge in illegal practices among which the corruption and the diversion, and the justice is not going to intervene.

That inaction of the justice in the face of the violation of the law by those who have promulgated it   and who are supposed to respect it and make it respected, encourages the rest of the population to violate also the law.

3.      The Slowness of our administration

One of the features of our administration is the slowness.

In fact, when a Congolese citizen solicits a service to the administration by following the normal procedure, it takes so long that he feels oblige to look for the shortcuts.

However, the Congolese citizen will end by giving bribe in order to motivate the worker who is in charge of providing the service to work on it quickly so that the Congolese citizen can get it on time.

4. The lack of trust between the administration and its civil servants.

In fact, concerning diversion, when a civil servant who is in charge of collecting money for the administration has collected it, he says to himself: if I let this money go in the till of the administration, it won’t come back to me at the end of the month, because the boss will take it and will not think of me.  Therefore, I have to make it disappear before it gets in the till of the administration.

And concerning corruption, it is very difficult for a civil servant to refuse corruption while he knows that if the same corruption was given to his boss, he would have taken it.

5.      The poor payment

The wages that the administration gives to its civil servants predispose them to divert the possessions of the State and to take the bribe.

Given the insufficiency of the wages to satisfy the needs of the civil servants, they indulge in corruption and diversion in order to fill in the deficit.

6.      Nepotism

In D.R. CONGO, when somebody enters the administration, the first thing he does is to get himself surrounded by his family members in that administration even if their profiles are not compatible with jobs that are in that administration. He acts in this way because his main purpose is to give to his family members the chance to get reach, and to avoid the betrayal in all its forms whose people who do not belong to his family can be authors of if he hires them.

However, as these family members who enter the administration, not because they deserve but because the chief is a brother/sister do already know that the short time they have to spend in the administration is the unique occasion they have to get rich, because the day their brother/sister will leave the administration is the same day they will leave too, they then use the corruption and the diversion in order to get reach before the leaving of their brother.

7.      Individualism

It is deplorable to assist, today, in D.R. Congo, to the deterioration of the traditional values that put a particular emphasis on solidarity  among people, and to the birth of the culture where the running to the individual interests  sacrifices collective interests.  This being, when a Congolese accesses a decision-making organ, he doesn’t see it as an occasion to serve, but to get rich.

Corruption and diversion are proofs that the Congolese has no longer a place in the existence of his fellow citizen, that what the Congolese sees are just his personal interests  and that to satisfy them, he doesn’t assess the means he uses to see whether they impoverish  his fellow citizen or not.

And to justify his individualism, he says: I am not the responsible of the dysfunction of the Congolese State. The problem is older than I am. It is since Mobutu; and it is not me who is going to change in a short time what billions of Congolese have destroyed during decades. Me too, my time has come to have what they left.

Otherwise, Mobutu is no longer there; and he won’t come any more. It is up to us now to fix things.

Unfortunately, we know by heart what others have to do, and we ignore what we have to do. We condemn others and forget that each one of us bears a solution to the problem of our Country.

However, we who do not make a part of the generation that has destroyed the D.R. Congo should then make a part of the generation that will rebuild the D.R. Congo.

What are consequences of corruption and diversion?

Consequences of corruption and diversion are numerous; however, the most dangerous is the impoverishment of the State.

In fact, we all know that the main mission the State is to satisfy the general interest.

However, when the State is power, it experiences difficulties to assume its responsibilities, among which the respect of the basic rights such as, the right to education, to health care, to clean water, to food, etc.  Hence the intervention of the foreign humanitarian organizations.

Also, because of the same poverty due to corruption and diversion whose the Congolese State is victim, it finds itself unable to make investments thanks to which it can create employment and increase the recipe of the public treasure to fund the development of the country and pay workers whose the most important are soldiers and the policemen because they are in charge of security, and if they are not well paid, they insecure people instead of securing them. Also, enemies of peace can use them. Hence the resort to the international financial institutions to borrow money in order to fill the deficit caused by corruption and diversion.

Otherwise, corruption and diversion beget social injustice, because they promote illegal enrichments and social inequalities.

What are the solutions to the problems of corruption and diversion?

We think that the following elements should also make part of solutions to end corruption and diversion in D.R. Congo:

     – The change of mentality

It is necessary for us Congolese in general to change our mentality, because we are not innocent. Each one of us has destroyed the country of his way. Therefore, we no longer need, we Congolese, to look for enemies of D.R. Congo and its development out of our national frontiers, because we are the ones.

-The replacement of dictatorship by democracy, governance and the promotion of the access to education.

In fact, it is only in a democratic regime where there is transparency in the management of public affairs, the separation between personal possessions of leaders and the possessions of the State and an independent justice thanks to which the impunity is absent.

Concerning education, it is an instrument that supports democracy because the excess of intellectuals is a big challenge for a dictatorial regime; while the governance puts a particular emphasis on three actors: the State, the private sector and the civilian society.

The State is the manager, the private sector is constituted of taxpayers and the civilian society pushes the State that is the manager to use the money paid by the taxpayers to improve life conditions of the population.